政策-makers need to better incentivise investment in long-duration energy storage solutions to ensure the stability of electricity grids powered by renewables, 一个专家小组发出了警告.
在一个特殊的 圆桌会议 参加由SSE可再生能源组织的联合国气候大会(COP26), 小组成员讨论了这一政策, regulatory and market challenges to developing pumped storage hydropower (PSH) and other technologies such as liquid air energy storage and green hydrogen.
马尔科姆•特恩布尔, former Prime Minister of Australia and Co-Chair of the International Forum on Pumped Storage Hydropower, emphasised the need to move quickly to build more PSH to meet 2030 and 2050 net zero emissions goals.
Commenting on the need for the grid balancing services offered by long-duration storage, Mr Turnbull said: “Pumped storage hydropower is the key technology that is doing that today, 但时间上存在很大的不对称性.
这个观点得到了吉姆·史密斯的赞同, 上海电力股份有限公司董事总经理, who said: “We all know that wind is intermittent and that with the [UK] government’s targets for 2030 we need to move quickly to build additional long-duration energy storage.”
SSE可再生能源正在苏格兰开发一项新的大型PSH计划, Coire格拉斯, 有高达1500兆瓦的潜在容量. It is the first such large-scale scheme to be developed in the UK for more than 30 years and would more than double existing national storage capacity.
“We’re pleased the government has come out with a consultation on long-duration energy storage and outcomes are expected next year. SSE Renewables has asked for a Cap and Floor mechanism in order to stabilise the revenue streams and bring more investment.
But Mr Smith warned: “We can’t afford to wait too long for the government to make decisions. 建设需要很长时间, we’re anticipating six years with Coire格拉斯 and everything in the sector now needs to be done at speed,”他说.
埃迪丰富, esball国际平台客户端首席执行官, 他说:“这是危机中的危机——后备力量在哪里, 当风不吹，太阳不照耀时会发生什么, 以及当这些能源有太多多余的能量时. 我们需要唤醒政策制定者，让他们认识到这场被忽视的危机.
正如IEA和IRENA所言, we need to build in the next 30 years more hydropower capacity than we’ve built in the last 130, 所以这是一个很大的挑战. 全球在建的还远远不够.”
Mr Rich emphasised the importance of ensuring that moving forward, all hydropower is sustainable.
“We’ve discussed some of the priorities [for accelerating PSH development] in Scotland and the UK… but we still have to demonstrate sustainability. 唯一可接受的水电是可持续的，符合最近推出的 水电可持续esball国际app标准,”他说.
The lack of an enabling policy and regulatory framework for investment in PSH technology was identified by the 圆桌会议 as the most significant barrier to greater investment in new long-duration energy storage.
伊恩McKinniard, 苏格兰资产和德拉克斯发电工程总监, 他表示:“挑战在于通往市场和收入稳定的漫长道路. 试图预测未来是很困难的, 而且这些资产的寿命几乎是无限的.
“这是一个非常资本密集型的行业，之前有很长一段领先时间, 作为一个企业, we get a return on this investment… we need to make these decisions soon to meet the [net zero] target.”
esball国际app所需的监管和市场激励措施, 埃德•波特, Invinity能源系统的业务总监, said: “We’re going from a very centralised system to one where we have to be very smart about where we put these technologies and how we balance the grid.
朱利安·莱斯利, 国家电网能源电力系统运营商的网络主管, spoke of his concern about how lengthy periods of low generation from variable renewables, 特别是风, 会在未来相遇吗. 他说:“我们需要非常、非常大规模的长期能量储存.
“By 2025 we will have surplus [variable renewables] generation that we will need storage for. 我们绝对需要市场确定性来将这些技术推向市场, 我们需要像Cap和Floor这样的机制, 我们需要在很短的时间内进行长期的能量储存.”
西蒙•吉尔, 苏格兰政府系统和技术政策主管, agreed that technologies like PSH need the support of Cap and Floor mechanisms to support the return on investment. He said the energy and the amount of storage required across the system to respond to situations such as wind droughts is huge.
“What we as a country and globally need to do is to understand what role each technology needs to play. PSH在管理每小时和每天的变化方面发挥着作用.”
西蒙Markall, 英国能源部对外事务副主任, said that a plan for the different technologies required to support the future energy system is urgently needed from the UK and Scottish Governments.
“单靠可再生能源，我们无法实现零碳排放. 我们需要综合技术，核能将在其中发挥作用. 不是在苏格兰, but in the UK at least one nuclear plant is planned to provide that stability in the system.”
Ita Kettleborough, Deputy Director at the 能源 Transitions Commission spoke about its work to assess what will be required across the energy system to reach net zero by 2050. “我们可以看到很多解决方案, 但如果我们要在未来30年内实现这种转变, we need the vision from policymakers… we need to see a market design and we need large amounts of private capital to flow in as quickly as possible,”她说.
斯坦泰克的水电和水坝主任, 克雷格•斯科特, agreed that there is a gap between the private sector and the government sector globally in how to enable long-duration energy storage projects. He said that the common factor across the schemes Stantec is working on across the world, involved regulators looking at security of supply or specific technologies to unlock private investment. 他说:“很少有人得到esball国际app，但这是可以做到的.”
Managing Director at COWI UK Andy Sloane queried whether the UK has the ambition to build the scale of new energy storage needed. “北欧国家，尤其是丹麦，雄心勃勃. They’re making a £24 billion investment in a series of offshore windfarms to create green hydrogen on an island for industry (not long-duration storage). 从政策的角度来看，我们在规模上有这样的雄心吗? 建立这些项目并使其顺利实施需要很长时间.”
When asked what one message needed to be conveyed to world leaders at COP26 about long-duration energy storage, the group highlighted the need to remain technology neutral in order to meet the ambitious targets, and the urgent need for an overall plan – a market design – to provide direction to the energy sector.